Making Sense of Heidegger : a Paradigm Shift
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To set a reading intention, click through to any list item, and look for the panel on the left hand side:. Making sense of Heidegger: a paradigm shift. The key, perhaps, is that one is to hold, for as long as possible, presencing into view by engaging the truthing disclosure and simultaneous closure of presencing, as they both creatively form presencing itself. That which is to be thought turns away from us. It withdraws from us. But how can we have the least knowledge of something that is withdrawn from the outset?
How can we even give it a name? Whatever withdraws refuses arrival. But—withdrawing is not nothing. Withdrawal is event [appropriation, ereignis]. In fact, what withdraws may even concern and claim man more essentially than anything present that strikes and touches him. The inconspicuous [unscheinbar] thing withdraws itself from thought most stubbornly.
Or can it be that this self-refusal of the mere thing, this self-contained refusal to be pushed around, belongs precisely to the essential nature of things? Yet a second kind of concealment concealment 2 concerns reflection upon its various modes Weisen and kinds Arten in its particularity. Under a displacement concealment 2. Yet their being described can take place only through various forms of renouncement e.
One is given a kind of intuition or awareness of such mysteries, yet accessing their multivalent features remains unthinkable, though the mystery prods one to attempt to do so. But since technical explaining and explicability provide the criterion for what can claim to be real, the inexplicable residue left over becomes the superfluous [i. In this way the mysterious is only what is left over, what is not yet accounted for and incorporated within the circuit of explicative procedures.
It would surely be simplistic and not thoughtful at all if we were saying that the little ego of some individual man were capable of elevating calculability to the rank of the measure of the reality of the real. The secret in the mystery [Das Geheime des Geheimnisvollen] is a kind of concealment [Verbergung], characterized by its insignificance [Unscheinbarkeit, i.
Another kind of concealment [the passive Verbergung] within the mysterious is displayed by the clandestine, under the cover of which, e. There the concealment has the character of an extended yet at the same time tightly knit ambush, lying in wait for the moment of the sudden outburst. The inconspicuous [das Unscheinbare] is here too. But now it [i. The inconspicuous can work within the forms of both concealment and deception, without being reducible to either.
Another way it is distinct from a straightforward hiddeness is that what is hidden is capable of being eventually uncovered or unconcealed if one makes certain efforts, while what is inconspicuous retains layers of unnoticability. What is inconspicuous is incapable of being exhausted, yet remains entirely immanent.
The uncanny is the simple, the insignificant [unscheinbar, i. The astounding for the Greeks is the simple, the insignificant [unscheinbar], Being itself. The astounding, visible in the astonishing, is the uncanny, and it pertains so immediately to the ordinary that it can never be explained on the basis of the ordinary. We believe we are at home in the immediate circle of beings. That which is, is familiar, reliable, ordinary.
Nevertheless, the clearing is pervaded by a constant concealment in the double form of refusal and dissembling. At bottom, the ordinary is not ordinary; it is extra-ordinary, uncanny. The nature of truth, that is, of unconcealedness, is dominated throughout by a denial. Yet this denial is not a defect or a fault, as though truth were an unalloyed unconcealedness that has rid itself of everything concealed. If truth could accomplish this, it would no longer be itself.
This denial in the form of a double concealment belongs to the nature of truth as unconcealedness. Truth, in its nature, is un-truth. This is one reason why the simple and everyday take on such prominent roles—they mark the ways in which the Greek gods are manifested though without straightforwardly showing.
For our purposes, it is helpful to highlight how the inconspicuous is a kind of uncanniness. It is this peculiar ability that makes what is familiar and ordinary to appear in an unimpressive and homely manner. It is this initial unimpressiveness of the uncanny that makes it so shocking and astounding beyond expectation. By merit of its inconspicuousness, the uncanny makes the entire world appear out of sorts.
Much like the hyle of sense perception, one overlooks that which appears to be ordinary by merit of its lacking any profound ability to grab attention. The familiar and ordinary appears banal, and therefore the intelligibility of its phenomena is actively set aside in preference for seeing something else.
The memory, overfamiliarity, and past experience with particular phenomena lends to their intelligibilities being-setting-aside from investigation, no matter the astonishing potentia they may hold. Meaningful presence so easily congeals into stativity. One experiences the present as it is given, though such a being given is only of that which is always already there. Is this kind of tautology-speak mere sophistry, or is it indeed depicting a phenomenological reality?
We are here [at the aforementioned tautology] in the domain of the inconspicuous [Bereich des Unscheinbaren]: presencing itself presences. The name for what is addressed in this state of affairs is: to eon, which neither beings, nor simply being, but to eon: presencing: presencing itself. In this domain of the inapparent, however.
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This kind of indication works in two senses. First, it actively depicts something in such a way that it is meaningfully present for the one to whom that which is given is depicted e. And second, indication is that which gives some thing the opportunity to be itself, that is, to be what it always already is. Our task is to attend to the present yet potentially shifting status of the thing and its phenomenality.
Tautology could here be thought as a kind of involution whereby an operation is inverted to determine that its inverse claim or operation is equal to it, though stated or arrived at differently. Further, it is the non-appearing of phenomena that make for the possibilities of their appearing. In this sense, one can even say that it is more apparent than what itself appears. Yet provided its status as inconspicuous, any method of calculability will come up short in description.
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The inconspicuous is a domain of non-experience which is distinct, e. There are a number of other places scattered throughout his work through which one might observe the word evolving into attaining the status of the concept that it reaches in his final seminar. I suggest there are at least three possible interpretations, which still retain room for further distinction and clarification.
The phenomenological process is an interminable one, and Being announces itself in and through the various strata of phenomena. Inconspicuousness resides within any phenomenal appearance, and the task of a lifetime would be to make Being intelligible. Although true, this approach is irreducible to the notion that all phenomena bear layers of intelligibility that can be accessed via phenomenological description.
Many would subscribe to this view because it fits quite nicely into how we generally interpret Heidegger more broadly on phenomenal experience. It is surely the case that the a priori of appearance can never be brought into manifestation fully, and that there is some inner oscillation at work between unconcealment and concealment.
If phenomenology, in every instance must contain some element of inconspicuousness, then therefore is not one obliged to seek means of attunement to the specific features and activities of inconspicuousness in every attempt to think phenomenologically? Despite the potential saliency of these concerns, it is very likely the case that inconspicuousness can be interpreted as a characterization of Being, in general.
Such an exercise would be like a reduction to the inconspicuous withdrawal of phenomena. There are, for example many things that are inconspicuous to me right now: the hyle of the plastic keyboard upon which I type; the sensation of an ache in my back to which I have grown so accustomed in the last hour.
I exercise my ability to experience things and be affected by them despite their ordinary status of being accepted into my meaning-given experience within the world. By turning attention to the pain in my back, something new might be revealed to me, such as my human contingency. By relaying to the physical experience of typing I might reflectively engage in a better understanding the relation that is being formed with my operating system, which typing mediates.
This remains consistent with the notion that the the uncanny is most expressed in ordinary things. As I engage what has become inconspicuous to me, then like a rack and pinion, the most profound potentia of phenomena are given warrant schein to make an appearance, despite the fact that they may only give themselves contingently. Under this interpretation, all phenomena, no matter how ordinary, are capable of bearing such inconspicuousness, yet one engages it only at a particular step or time within phenomenological reflection. They are very particular sorts of phenomena, which require a very particular type of phenomenology that corresponds with their unique modes of manifestation.
They are phenomena that forfeit their phenomenality in a unique way, yet still remain qualifiable as fully, present-at-hand phenomena. Though they may appear in the ordinary, or at least, present themselves as if they are ordinary as one might glean from the Parmenides Seminars , it may be that not all ordinary phenomena have the potential for such inconspicuousness. It would be through thinking—tautologically—the presencing das Anwesen of presence die Anwesenheit , that one might arrive at an experience of these phenomena. Two thinkers who seem to hold to the view that there are unique phenomena that are inconspicuous are Janicaud and Marion.
Being is unique insofar as it does not present itself like other phenomena; nevertheless, Being is a phenomenon despite not appearing ontically. An argument could be made that for Heidegger there are phenomena that might carry traits of inconspicuousness more than others, such as those that he claims to house the mysterious. Would not a direct explanation of them exhaust them of their inconspicuousness? Is an aspect of inconspicuousness sufficient for one to have had an experience with that which is presented to experience as inconspicuous?
One wonders if there could be an approach to such inconspicuousness without it ultimately undermining its own characteristics. It also is concerning to think that such a phenomenology of the inconspicuous could be claimed as a new point of access to a metaphysical eidos; again, one that Heidegger already banished in his critique of ontotheology. A phenomenology of the inconspicuous must be a study of Being in this world, and not employed to justify a return to the metaphysics of presence. What is inconspicuous must remain as such, despite its own inner tensions.
There likely are reasons why Heidegger, after his last seminar in , left his treatment of inconspicuousness slightly ambiguous. Aside from the fact that the later thesis reflects a slightly more radical and daring attempt which I find to be most likely, given that it was introduced in his last seminar for phenomenology, at the very least, it might be suggested that there are phenomena that have a greater tendency to inconspicuousness than others.
There are likely varying shades of inconspicuousness that phenomena can bear, and those shades tell us more about ourselves—what we care about, how we ignore, disguise, and select data—than they do about the phenomena.
Overall, an approach that allows for the experience of something inconspicuous involves the active being-caught-up in the ordinary in such a way that something mysterious can shine through it. This is the phenomenological seeing as stated in the Zahringen Seminar at which one might arrive, which is a contested presencing that the will could never apprehend or grasp. What is inconspicuous amounts to the most basic transgression of how we typically understand phenomenal appearance. Overwhelming privilege is accorded today to whatever can present the greatest possible degree of unconcealment: The greater degree the spectacle, we are complicit to believe, the more sacred an event becomes and the closer to divinity it presents itself.
This bears consequences for what has become most familiar, and therefore insignificant to us. Yet with a bit of optimism, phenomenology may provide tools for sharpening our ability to take seriously again what is ordinary and familiar. Yet there is certainly no consensus on how unscheinbar is to be translated into English. Heidegger , pp. What troubles some can gratify others. Ready to renounce a thematic phenomenology, the candidates to the theological heritage will content themselves with a phenomenology of points and dots.
Janicaud , pp. Janicaud , p. If it means something, and if Heidegger was not simply toying with his audience, it is in fact the inauguration of a new meditative form of thought. Rather it is to give the fullest sense to this very difficult attempt to train sight and hearing to get as close as possible to phenomenality. But in that experience it is thoroughly alien to the Greeks to press present being into an opposing objectness; phainesthai means to them that a being assumes its radiance, and in that radiance it appears.
Thus appearance is still the basic trait of the presence of all present beings, as they rise into unconcealment. Figal , p. Heidegger has crafted it; the latest testimony of his thinking documents it. See Martin Heidegger , p. In the midst of beings as a whole an open place occurs.
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There is a clearing, a lighting [Lichtung]. Thought of in reference to what is, to beings, this clearing is in a greater degree than are beings. This open center is therefore not surrounded by what is; rather, the lighting center itself encircles all that is, like the Nothing which we scarcely know.
That which is can only be, as a being, if it stands within and stands out within what is lighted in this clearing. Only this clearing grants and guarantees to us humans a passage to those beings that we ourselves are not, and access to the being that we ourselves are. Thanks to this clearing, beings are unconcealed in certain changing degrees. And yet a being can be concealed, too, only within the sphere of what is lighted. Each being we encounter and which encounters us keeps to this curious opposition of presence in that it always withholds itself at the same time in a concealedness.
The clearing in which beings stand is in itself at the same time concealment. Concealment, however, prevails in the midst of beings in a twofold way. Heidegger , p. When I take something as, whether in theory or praxis, I understand the Sein of the thing, whether correctly or incorrectly. Steinbock , p. The beautiful is not what pleases, but what falls within that fateful gift of truth which comes into its own when that which is eternally unapparent [unscheinbare, i.
Heidegger b , p. Caputo , p. There are different types of closure, and different ways of interpreting unconcealment. In order to keep the secret of this thing, one must, Heidegger says, keep silent. Only silence preserves the secret, only silence respects the simplicity and the Unscheinbarkeit with which the secret offers a glimpse of itself through a thing which, by withdrawing for the sake of its mystery, runs the risk of going unnoticed.
Martin Heidegger b , p.